In several large developing countries and fast-growing economies (China, India, Thailand, Indonesia, Egypt and Iran), greenhouse gas emissions have increased rapidly (PBL, 2009). [116] For example, emissions in China increased sharply between 1990 and 2005, often by more than 10% per year. Per capita emissions in non-Annex I countries remain for the most part significantly lower than in developed countries. Non-Annex I countries do not have quantitative emission reduction commitments, but they do commit to mitigation measures. China, for example, had a national policy agenda to reduce emissions growth that included shutting down old, less efficient coal-fired power plants. Others, including Japan – the host country of the Kyoto signing – have fallen far short of GHG reduction targets and have instead increased emissions. And we know what happened – they signed it and many other countries too, but the difference between the signatories is that the American signature means nothing without ratification by the Senate. This was true then and it is still true today. Are participating countries on track to achieve the objectives of the Protocol? A total of 192 countries have signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol, the 1997 treaty that comes closest to a functioning global agreement to combat climate change. It is almost every country, every state and even a “regional economic integration organization,” according to the United Nations. If you have access to the content of a journal through a university, library or employer, please contact Permalink here: If the implementing body finds that an Annex I country is not meeting its emission limit, that country must compensate for the difference in the second commitment period plus an additional 30%.

In addition, that country is excluded from the making of transfers under an emissions trading programme. [93] The greenhouse effect occurs when certain gases known as greenhouse gases accumulate in the Earth`s atmosphere. Greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), ozone (O3) and fluorinated gases. In 2001, a follow-up to the previous meeting (COP6-bis) took place in Bonn[88], where the necessary decisions were taken. After some concessions, the proponents of the protocol (led by the European Union) managed to get the approval of Japan and Russia by allowing greater use of carbon sinks. The agreement is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which was adopted at the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro and did not establish legally binding emission limits or enforcement mechanisms. Only Parties to the UNFCCC may become Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the third meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP 3) in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997.

COP7 was held in Marrakesh from 29 October 2001 to 9 November 2001 to determine the final details of the Protocol. In response to this criticism, Bush said, “I have responded to reality, and the reality is that the nation has a real problem when it comes to energy.” The Tyndall Centre called this “an exaggeration used to conceal the great benefactors of this policy reversal, that is, the U.S. oil and coal industry, which has a powerful lobby with the government and conservative Republican members of Congress.” [103] Certainly, there is ample evidence to prove the existence of global warming, but for President Bush, the results of the IPCC are not enough to sign an international agreement. The Protocol defines three “flexibility mechanisms” that can be used by Annex I Parties to meet their emission control obligations. [41]:402 The flexibility mechanisms are the International Emissions Trading System (EET), the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI). The EIT allows Annex I Parties to “trade” their emissions (assigned quantity units, AAUs or “allowances” for short). [42] For these projects, developing countries received carbon credits that they could trade or sell to developed countries, allowing them to achieve higher levels of maximum carbon emissions for that period. In fact, this function has helped developed countries continue to emit high greenhouse gases. In December 2012, following the end of the Protocol`s first commitment period, Parties to the Kyoto Protocol met in Doha, Qatar, to adopt an amendment to the original Kyoto Agreement. This so-called Doha amendment added new emission reduction targets for the second commitment period 2012-2020 for participating countries. The Doha Amendment had a short lifespan.

In 2015, at the Paris Summit on Sustainable Development, all PARTICIPANTS in the UNFCCC signed another pact, the Paris Climate Agreement, which effectively replaced the Kyoto Protocol. As of May 2013, 191 countries and one regional economic organization (EC) had ratified the Convention, which accounts for more than 61.6% of emissions from Annex I 1990. [97] One of the 191 states that have ratified the Protocol – Canada – has renounced the Protocol. The Protocol was adopted by the UNFCCC COP 3 in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997. It was opened for signature by the Parties to the UNFCCC on 16 March 1998 for a period of one year, at which time it was signed in Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Maldives, Samoa, Saint Lucia and Switzerland. By the end of the signing period, 82 countries and the European Community had signed. Ratification (which is required to become a party to the Protocol) began on 17 September with ratification by Fiji. Countries that have not signed the Convention have acceded to the Convention, which has the same legal effect. [1] On December 11, 1997, delegates from more than 150 countries signed the Kyoto Protocol, an agreement to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere.

The design of the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) implicitly allows for the trading of national Kyoto commitments between participating countries (Carbon Trust, 2009, p. 24). [50] Carbon Trust (2009, pp. 24-25) noted that outside of trading under the EU ETS, no intergovernmental emissions trading took place. [50] President Bush notes that there is a “. incomplete state of scientific knowledge on the causes and solutions of global climate change” (Bush). .